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More than 1,100 brilliant scientists and engineers push the boundaries of computing in multiple research areas and include contributions to Kinect for Xbox 360, work to develop an HIV vaccine, and advancing education techniques in rural communities.

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This talk introduces the five-year COE (Center of Excellence) program “Framework for Systematization and Application of Large-scale Knowledge Resources,” that launched in 2003 at Tokyo Institute of Technology. The project is conducting a wide range of interdisciplinary research combining humanities and technology to create a framework for the systematization and the application of large-scale knowledge resources in electronic forms. Spontaneous speech, written language, materials for...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Li Deng, Sadaoki Furui
Leakage power has become an increasingly important issue in processor hardware and software design. With the main component of leakage, the sub-threshold current, exponentially increasing with decreasing device dimensions, leakage commands an ever increasing share in the processor power consumption. In 65 nm and below technologies, leakage accounts for 30-40% of processor power. While there are several process technology and circuit-level solutions to reduce leakage in processors, the research...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Shearer, Aviral Shrivastava, Sarma...
Microsoft Research Video
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Bilingual word alignment, the task of finding word-to-word connections between a sentence and its translation, is an important part of knowledge acquisition for statistical machine translation. An Inversion Transduction Grammar, or ITG, provides an efficient algorithm to align a bilingual sentence pair, by simultaneously parsing the two sentences. However, the simple bracketing grammar usually employed in ITG parsing has no linguistic content. We investigate two methods to inform the ITG parser...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Chris Quirk, Colin Cherry
Microsoft Research Video
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This is a report on joint work with Kristin Lauter and Peter Stevenhagen. Broker and Stevenhagen have shown that in practice it is not hard to produce an elliptic curve (over some finite field) with a given number N of points, provided that the factorization of N is known. In his talk this week, Stevenhagen will show that the natural generalization of this method to produce genus-2 curves with a given number of points on their Jacobian is an exponential algorithm. I will consider the related...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kristin Lauter, Everett Howe
Microsoft Research Video
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With uniprocessor systems running into ILP limits and fundamental VLSI constraints, parallel architectures provide a realistic path towards scalable performance. Nevertheless, shared memory multiprocessors are neither simple to design nor easy to program. Transactional Coherence and Consistency (TCC) is a new model for shared memory systems with the potential to address both issues. TCC relies on user-defined, light-weight transactions as the basic unit of parallel work, communication, memory...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jim Larus, Christos Kozyrakis
Microsoft Research Video
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When systems rely on a "human in the loop" to carry out a security-critical function, cyber trust indicators are often employed to communicate when and how to perform that function. Cyber trust indicators typically serve as warnings or status indicators that communicate information, remind users of information previously communicated, and influence user behavior. They include a variety of security- and privacy-related symbols in the operating system status bar or browser chrome,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, MSR & Trust User eXperience (TUX), Lorrie...
Microsoft Research Video
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Many real-world applications such as gene expression clustering and collaborative filtering can be modeled by matrix factorization. A common challenge for applying matrix factorization is determining the dimensionality of the latent matrices from data. Indian Buffet processes enable us to apply the nonparametric Bayesian machinery to address this challenge. Given data, however, learning nonparametric Bayesian matrix factorization models remains a difficult task. Based on equivalent classes on...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Dengyong Zhou, Alan Qi
Microsoft Research congratulates Chuck Thacker for winning the 2009 Turing Award! ©2011 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Roy Levin, Butler Lampson, Rick Rashid,...
I'll talk about two projects I worked on this summer at MSR. The first project was to find local dynamics that lead to balanced outcomes in exchange networks, an equilibrium concept that combines notions of stability and fairness. I'll present a distributed algorithm that computes a balanced outcome on bipartite graphs that builds on the auction algorithm for the assignment problem. The second project was to find local dynamics that lead to equilibrium in the Linear Fisher Market. I'll describe...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, David Wilson, Ben Birnbaum
Diagrams are a useful way to efficiently convey abstract information. Layout is an important aspect of diagram creation, impacting heavily on readability. Good diagram layout is difficult because it encompasses both a user's aesthetic preferences as well as drawing conventions for particular styles of diagrams. Existing diagram authoring software provides some layout tools, but these usually perform a once-off change. As such, the author of the diagram handles the majority of diagram layout...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Lev Nachmanson, Michael Wybrow
Can you write code without an Internet connection? The ready availability of online tutorials, forums, and source code examples has fundamentally changed programming practices. Understanding and supporting these emerging practices is vital to building the next generation of development environments. This talk first presents our empirical work investigating how programmers use the Web. We studied 20 individuals in the lab and over 24,000 individuals through search log analysis. We found that Web...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Gina Venolia, Joel Brandt
Microsoft Research Video
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11:00 - 11:30 Ken Stephenson (U. Tennessee) Rigidity of circle packings 11:35 - 12:05 Zheng-Xu He (Beijing CAS) Disk packings and conformal maps 12:10 - 12:40 Igor Pak (UMN and UCLA) Caged eggs and the rigidity of convex polyhedra ©2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, David Wilson, Donald E. Marshall, Ken...
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This session will cover the Xilinx next generation 40 and 45nm FPGAs Virtex-6 and Spartan-6. The key features of both families including new I/O capabilities, high speed clocking, FPGA fabric, Multi-Gigabit transceivers, and memory will be covered. In addition to features the session will cover the product families and the release schedule. For a quick overview of the new families go to http://www.xilinx.com/products/v6s6.htm ©2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Ray Bittner, Don Matson
The progress of any creative discipline changes significantly with the quality of the tools available. As the diversity of user interfaces multiplies in the shift away from personal desktop computing, yesterday's tools and concepts are insufficient to serve the designers of tomorrow's interfaces. My research in human-computer interaction focuses on the earliest stages in UI creation - activities that take a novel idea and transform it into a concrete, interactive artifact that can be...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Andy Wilson, Bjoern Hartmann
Microsoft Research Video
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Until recently, the study of cognition and the neurophysiological basis of human behavior was the subject of quite separate disciplines such as psychology, neurophysiology, cognitive science, computer science, and philosophy, among others. Mental processes were mainly studied in the framework of abstract theories, mathematical models, and disembodied artificial intelligence. It has now become clear that mental processes are strongly entwined with the physical structure of the body and its...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Zhengyou Zhang, Giorgio Metta
Static spectrum allocation has resulted in low spectrum efficiency in licensed bands and poor performance of radio devices in crowded unlicensed bands. To remedy these problems, we have been exploring ways of exploiting the concept of 'spectrum agility' such that radio devices can dynamically and opportunistically utilize idle spectral bands. Cognitive radio (CR) is one such device that enables dynamic spectrum access and environment-aware wireless networking. We studied several key elements of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Victor Bahl, Kang G. Shin
Microsoft Research Video
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In this talk I will discuss a potential path towards building a massively connected machine with the processing power and connectivity similar to that of the human brain in one cubic meter. The construction method uses stochastic aggregation of modules to form a coherent highly-interconnected computer. We hope that the resulting system will provide a platform for performing brain related simulation and understanding algorithms and programming methods for massively connected computers. The most...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Stewart Tansley, Seth Copen Goldstein
In modern microprocessors and systems-on-a-chip, the embedded memory system plays a key role in determining the design’s overall performance, power, area, reliability, and yield. As fabrication process technologies scale into the deep nanometer regime, increasing device variability poses particular difficulties for memory design due to the large number of variation-sensitive near minimum-sized devices in the cell arrays which often must achieve working circuits out beyond six sigma of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Doug Burger, Jangwoo Kim
Microsoft Research Video
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In the often male dominated world of computers, Rebecca Norlander has made a name for herself by taking on big challenges, and proving she has what it takes to deliver results. Join us to learn how Rebecca got her start at Microsoft, advancing through roles where she had tremendous impact on Excel, Internet Explorer, Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista Security, and now as Technical Strategist to Chief Software Architect, Ray Ozzie. Rebecca will share with us her insights around the obstacles she has...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jennifer Sisti, Rebecca Norlander
Modern phones are being equipped with numerous sensors such as cameras, microphones, GPS, accelerometers, and health monitors. This project aims to design a 'Virtual Information Telescope', where the 'lenses' of the telescope are metaphors for the sensors in people's mobile phones. Using such a telescope, an Internet user will be able to zoom into any part of the human-populated world, and observe events of interest. Users will be able to direct queries to phones located in a given region, and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Ranveer Chandra, Romit Roy Choudhury
Microsoft Research Video
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We consider a basestation transmitting data to a set of mobile users. At each time step the basestation receives information about the channel conditions to each user. These channel conditions are time-varying and user-dependent. The job of the scheduler is to pick a user to serve. In recent years this problem has received a great deal of attention. In the first part of the talk we give an overview of some specific models that arise from 3rd generation wireless standards. We summarize some of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Sudipta Sengupta, Lisa Zhang
In this talk I will first give a brief introduction to Energy Based Models. I will then discuss in detail the two areas where I have applied these techniques, namely Relational Regression and Similarity Metric Learning. In a number of real world problems, such as, web-page classification, social networks, and house price prediction, the samples are related to each other in complex ways such that the values of unknown variables associated with one sample depends not only on its individual...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Chris J.C. Burges, Sumit Chopra
Automatic human affect recognition research is to enable a computer to understand human affective behavior through sensors, with a goal of building human-centered and affect-support computing environment. This talk includes four parts. The state of the art Automated analysis of human affective behavior has attracted increasing attention from researchers in multiple disciplines. I will present a picture of this research through our recent comprehensive survey (accepted in PAMI) where we examine...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Zhengyou Zhang, Zhihong (John) Zeng
The everyday interactions which we carry out with computers are constrained by our own perceptual and motor capabilities that are associated with the technology being used. To improve our overall experiences with both contemporary and emerging technological platforms there are two important steps which must be respected. 1) Understanding the nature of the low-level capabilities of the human user associated with the technology at use. 2) Designing interaction techniques and user interfaces based...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Ken Hinckley, Tovi Grossman
Microsoft Research Video
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The research and industrial communities have made great strides in developing sophisticated defect detection tools based on static analysis. However, to date most of the work in this area has focused on developing novel static analysis algorithms, and neglected study of other aspects of static analysis tools, in particular user interfaces. In this work, we present a novel user interface toolkit called Path Projection that helps users visualize, navigate, and understand program paths, a common...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Manuel Fahndrich, Jeff Foster
Microsoft Research Video
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In this talk, I present an overview of three projects in my research group. The PRIME project focuses on fundamental issues in the design and evaluations of P2P streaming mechanisms. I present a few studies in the context of this project including (i) design of a scalable mesh-based P2P streaming mechanism for scalable delivery of live video, (ii) a comparative study between mesh-based and tree-based approaches to live P2P streaming, and (iii) the importance of packet scheduling schemes in...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jin Li, Reza Rejaie
Disk drive failures continue to be one of the primary causes of data loss and system failures. In most failure scenarios, the disk does not stop working entirely; rather, the failures tend to be partial failures, where some disk sectors are unavailable due to a latent sector error or block corruption. In this talk, I will present the characteristics, storage-stack impact, and tolerance techniques for such partial failures. First, I will present our large-scale studies of two important kinds of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Bill Bolosky, Lakshmi N. Bairavasundaram
Microsoft Research Video
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The queries that users pose to web search engines range from two to four terms in length. Much effort has been spent on handling these queries, with considerable success. Apart from advances in retrieval models, simple interaction techniques like query suggestions, spelling correction, and landing page suggestions have also provided substantial improvements in performance. But, what next? One often-proposed avenue for the next big advance leading to better search experience and user...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Dennis DeCoste, Giridhar Kumaran
Since most interesting cryptographic tasks are impossible to achieve with absolute, information-theoretic security, modern cryptography aims to design cryptographic primitives (i.e., algorithms/protocols) that are computationally infeasible to break. Proving lower bounds of the type needed, however, seems beyond the reach of current techniques in complexity theory. Thus, research in the Foundations of Cryptography has aimed to design primitives based on complexity assumptions that are as weak...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Iftach Haitner
Microsoft Research Video
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The theory of automated program revision studies possibilities and limitations of revising existing programs. We require that such revision must be achieved within the given program's current state space so that the revised program satisfies newly identified requirements while it continues to satisfy its current properties. The main focus of this theory is to identify instances where automated revision of programs can be achieved efficiently (possibly in polynomial-time) and where it is...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Margus Veanes, Borzoo Bonakdarpour
Microsoft Research Video
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Anonymous credential systems allow users to anonymously obtain credentials from organizations, and to anonymously and unlinkably prove possesion of valid credentials. Often in practice, however, a user authenticates using some credential chain: a root organization gives a credential to an intermediate party who can in turn use this to issue credentials to user.We address this problem by presenting the first efficient delegatable anonymous credential scheme. In such a scheme, a party can receive...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kristin Lauter, Melissa Chase
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The design of models that learn textual entailment recognizers from annotated examplesis not simple as it requires the modeling of semantics involved in the interaction of pairsof text fragments. In this talk, we firstly introduce the class of pair feature spaces whichallow supervised machine learning algorithms to derive first-order rewrite rules from annotatedexamples. In particular, we propose the syntactic and the shallow semantic pairfeature spaces. ©2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Bill Dolan, Fabio Massimo Zanzotto
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To be effective, an agent that collaborates with humans needs to be able to learn new tasks from humans they work with. This paper describes a system that learns executable task models from a single collaborative learning session consisting of demonstration, explanation and dialogue. To accomplish this, the system integrates a range of AI technologies: deep natural language understanding, knowledge representation and reasoning, dialogue systems, planning/agent-based systems and machine...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tim Paek, James Allen
The Internet faces new challenges, ranging from unwanted or harmful traffic to the increasing complexity and fragility of inter-domain routing. At the same time, new applications demand evolution for new capabilities such as mobility, content-based routing, and quality-of-service (QoS) routing. Overlay networks use the existing Internet to provide connectivity for new services, and permit deployable network evolution. Overlay networks have not, however, addressed the full set of challenges and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Ming Zhang, Yun Mao
As researchers, one of our common goals is to expand our reach and our capabilities as human beings through the development of new technologies and new ideas. Often we use immense resources to explore this new territory. However, an unfortunate side effect of this essential activity is that the number of individuals that can participate in this search becomes smaller and smaller as the resources become greater and greater. My primary motivation in research is to develop and demonstrate new...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Eric Horvitz and Mary Czerwinski, Johnny...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, David Heckerman, Jonathan Carlson, Yun Song
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Bond percolation on a graph G with parameter p in [0,1] is the random subgraph G p of G obtained by independently deleting each edge with probability 1-p and retaining it with probability p. For many graphs, the size of the largest component of G p exhibits a phase transition: it changes sharply from logarithmic to linear as p increases. When G is the complete graph, this model is known as the Erdos-Renyi random graph: at the phase transition, i.e. p=1/n, the largest component satisfies a...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Asaf Nachmias
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Data sets usually have some structural property that make them useful. An array of points may be sorted, a set of points may be in convex position, a graph may be a tree, etc. These properties are very sensitive to noise, and even a small perturbation of the input would destroy the useful structural property. We investigate the problem of 'monotonicity reconstruction' in a parallel setting. We have oracle access to a function f defined on the finite domain [n] d . We would like to closely...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Satyen Kale, C. Seshadhr
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Diverse control and measurement applications, such as mobile phone testing, process optimization, and distributed sonic arrays all require precise timing and synchronization. Designers of such systems need to understand the tradeoffs between the available timing technologies before choosing the right technology. When it comes to writing the software for the system it is often the case that the programming languages and tools either treat time as a second class citizen or worse - ignore time all...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Mike Barnett, Jacob Kornerup
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A common approach in designing parallel languages is to provide some high level handles to manipulate the use of the parallel platform. This exposes some aspects of the target platform, for example, shared vs. distributed memory or task parallelism vs. data parallelism. Depending on the circumstances, these handles might be too powerful, not powerful enough or impose unnecessary constraints. Many potential programmers avoid these languages because they require too much understanding of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jim Larus, Kathleen Knobe
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Luay Nakhleh
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Many students from developing countries dream about working for a place like Microsoft. Unfortunately, even basic education can be hard to attain when families are in poverty. Vietnam is one place where families must pay fees for elementary and secondary education. Families in rural areas often subsist on 2 or 3 dollars per day, which makes it difficult for them to afford schooling for their children. The Viet Nam Scholarship Foundation was established to provide ongoing support to these...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Vahab Mirrokni and Jennifer Chayes, Gwen Vu,...
Not long ago, Americans could rightly feel confident in our preeminence in the world’s economy, as we set the pace for everything from the personal computer to the internet, from Wall Street to Hollywood, form the decoding of the genome to Web 2.0. So why is it that today Finland has the world’s most competitive economy? Why do US students rank 24th in math literacy around the world and why, in a reverse “brain drain”, did 30,000 highly trained professionals leave the US to return to...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley of Microsoft...
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Welcome to the mind and world of Fake Steve Jobs: Fake Steve, the counter-intuitive management guru: 'Obviously we can't literally put our employees' lives at risk. But we have to make them feel that way.' Fake Steve the celebrity hobnobber: 'I like Bono. He's the only person I know who's more self absorbed than I am.' Fake Steve on backdated stock options:'No doubt you've heard what happened to me. You've read the stories about the big scandal at Apple. The fact is, you've heard only one side....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Daniel Lyons
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In this talk we present a model that combines explicit and symbolic representations in an explicit-symbolic model checking tool. Both explicit and symbolic models have been successfully used in the verification of finite state concurrent systems, such as complex sequential circuits and communication protocols. The proposed model aims to use explicit and symbolic techniques together to verify the same model and to make it possible to employ the most efficient technique to each aspect of the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tom Ball, Sergio Campos
Video games are big business, but can they be much bigger businesses? To do so requires the retention of existing players and the expansion of the player population beyond its historically core constituency of young men. Getting other demographics to engage the console experience may require modifying the product to fit the needs, interests, and issues of non-traditional players. The success of the Wii is an indicator of this shift away from technical superiority to more inclusive play...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Marc Smith, Tracy Kennedy
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MPI is the de facto standard for programming cluster machines used in high performance computing. Even though MPI programs are not as error-prone to write as thread programs based on shared memory, the use of wildcard communications, split operations (posting and later testing), and recently added weak shared memory extensions to MPI all can, nevertheless, render MPI programs quite buggy. Extracting models from MPI programs and using existing model checkers suffers from many problems:...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Madan Musuvathi, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
Removing Camera Shake from a Single Photograph; Aaron Hertzmann - University of Toronto: Camera shake during exposure leads to objectionable image blur and ruins many photographs. Conventional blind deconvolution methods typically assume frequency domain constraints on images, or overly simplied parametric forms for the motion path during camera shake. Real camera motions can follow convoluted paths, and a spatial domain prior can better maintain visually salient image characteristics. We...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Rick Szeliski, Drew Steedly, Aaron Hertzmann,...
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The Laboratory for Perceptual Robotics at UMass Amherst is studying how sensors and effectors can be recruited into working robot systems using an idea we call the 'control basis.' This framework provides a convenient representation for combining distributed resources into integrated machines that can dissociate once their task is completed. Perhaps surprisingly, we feel this representation has a lot to do with the cognitive organization of development and dexterous behavior in biological...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, George Chrysanthakopoulos, Roderic Grupen
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In this talk I will describe three projects that harness the potential of variable-aperture photography – capturing multiple photos by manipulating basic lens controls such as aperture and focus. I will show that by combining such photos, the information encoded in defocus can be used to achieve a variety of goals. First, I will describe a new method for computing highly detailed 3D shape by controlling both the aperture and focus of a lens. This method is particularly well-suited for scenes...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Sing Bing Kang, Sam Hasinoff
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The game console market has gone highly concurrent, and the PC market is heading that way fast as well. The software development side of the game business has been reeling to catch up and deal with the new hardware, and the problem is far from solved. With a few products under our collective belt it is time to take a step back and assess where we are at, where things are headed, and how we are dealing with the recent and future changes to our hardware platforms... and how we would like to be...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, David Tarditi, Andrew Brownsword
Transfer functions, Analyzing composed systems, Q&A / Buffer. ©2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jim Larus, Joe Hellerstein
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A major engineering challenge in statistical machine translation systems is the efficient representation of extremely large translation rulesets. In phrase-based models, this problem can be addressed by storing the training data in memory and using a suffix array as an efficient index to quickly lookup and extract rules on the fly. Hierarchical phrase-based translation introduces the added wrinkle of source phrases with gaps. Lookup algorithms used for contiguous phrases no longer apply and the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Bill Dolan, Adam Lopez
In 1983, Aldous proved that randomization can speedup local search. For example, it reduces the query complexity of local search over grid 1:n] d from Theta (n d-1 ) to O (n d/2 ). It remains open whether randomization helps fixed-point computation. Inspired by this problem and recent advances on equilibrium computation, we have been fascinated by the following question: Is a fixed-point or an equilibrium fundamentally harder to find than a local optimum? In this talk, I will present a tight...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Shang-Hua Teng
Humanity has a 50-50 chance of surviving this century, according to the eminent cosmologist Sir Martin Rees, Britain’s Astronomer Royal. Grim odds indeed, but James Martin, one of the great intellects of the information age, has devised a plan for stacking them more heavily in our favor. Martin has watched as concurrent crises pile up, including the destruction of the environment, overpopulation, poverty and terrorism—yet up until now lack of awareness and apathy have fostered inaction,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, James Martin
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Albert Einstein is a great icon of our age: the kindly refugee from oppression whose wild halo of hair, twinkling eyes, engaging humanity, and extraordinary brilliance made his face a symbol and his name a synonym for genius. In 2006, all of his (published and unpublished) papers were unsealed, and with this new information we can get a deeper understanding of the man and his place in history. What role did Einstein’s 'rebellious nature' play in his creativity? What were his thoughts about...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Walter...
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Electronic documents provide vast amounts of information, but need to be organized in a way that lets people use that information.Topic models provide one way of approaching this problem, automatically identifying the 'topics' that appear in a collection of documents, and indicating the extent to which each document reflects each topic. I will summarize the basic ideas behind one such model, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (Blei, Ng, & Jordan, 2003), and use this model to describe how tools...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Chris Quirk, Tom Griffiths
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What do global warming, a scientific instrument weighing about 4500 tons and bill collection have in common? The once Berkeley 'hippie chick' turned Software Architect Catharine van Ingen. Catharine has a wealth of experience in hardware, including work with the Alpha machine and MIPS processor teams, and in industrial-strength software for algorithms used to manage water flows, logging data from particle accelerator detectors, and buying Mickey Mouse watches over the Internet. On Behind the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jennifer Sisti, Catharine van Ingen
Using a combination of techniques in optical and radio frequency domains, one can significantly improve the functionality of cameras for sensing, projectors for augmentation and RFIDs for location sensing services. We have recently developed a technique to capture a light field and improve the depth of field of a camera using heterodyning methods common in radio frequency modulation (http://www.merl.com/people/raskar/Mask/). We have also shown that sensor-enhanced wireless tags can be precisely...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Sing Bing Kang, Ramesh Raskar
With microprocessors hitting the power wall, alternative architectures are receiving substantial attention. Two factors make FPGAs promising, particularly for high performance computing applications: (i) the potential for thousand-fold parallelism, and (ii) the embedding of control into logic, which enables payload to be delivered every cycle. In this talk we will describe work in building FPGA-based accelerators for computational biology and bioinformatics. We find that, while there is...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Alessandro Forin, Yongfeng Gu
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Danyel Fisher, John C. Tang
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With email we can send a message to nearly anyone, anytime, from anywhere…but that doesn’t always mean that we should. In fact, email communication presents new challenges-both in terms of writing skills and strategy-that should prompt us to ask ourselves a series of questions every time we compose an electronic memo, note, report, or reply. For example, when should you email and when should you call or show up? What is the best strategy when you send (in anger or in error) a potentially...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, David Shipley
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We propose a novel graph decomposition that enables a scalable form of internet routing with roughly sqrt(n) memory and logarithmic delay. Subnetworks are required to be small and with small diameter, no three of them to overlap, but any two of them to do so. Our main result is that several popular models of 'internet-like graphs', most importantly the preferential attachment one proposed by Barabasi et al. in 1999, have such decompositions almost surely; experiments show that so does the real...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Christos Papadimitriou
Modern software engineering tools exhibit a fundamental paradox: they are meant to support the collaborative activity of software development, but cause individuals and groups to work independently from one another. The underlying issue is that existing tools discretize time and tasks in concrete but isolated process steps. This approach is fundamentally flawed in assuming that human activity can be codified and that periodic resynchronization of tasks is an easy step. In this talk, I present a...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Rob Deline, Anita Sarma
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The processor industry is at an inflection point. In the past, performance was the driving force behind the processor industry. But in the coming many-core era, improving programmability and reliability of the system will be at least as important as improving raw performance. To meet this vision, I will present a processor feature called BugNet that assists programmers in understanding software failures. Reproducing software failures is a significant challenge. The problem is severe especially...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Onur Mutlu, Satish Narayanasamy
Mobile delay-tolerant sensor networks are becoming increasingly important because of their ability to deliver long periods of fine-grained sensing over a wide area with a small number of nodes. A key challenge in these systems, however, is that nodes are extremely energy constrained since they must be small, lightweight, and function autonomously for months at a time. This problem is compounded by the fact that mobile nodes demand radios with relatively long ranges to maximize the effectiveness...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jie Liu, Christopher Sadler
Microsoft Research Video
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At CBS, we have during the recent years developed a number of web tools to be used in immunological research. These tools are all linked at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services and include a predictor of proteasomal cleavage; NetChop-3.0 [1], a predictor of MHC class I peptide binding; NetMHC-3.0, the algorithms are described in [2,3], a CTL-epitope predictor; NetCTL-1.2 [4], a tool predicting linear B-cell epitopes; BebiPred, [5], a platform for prediction of discontinuous B-cell epitopes,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Nebojsa Jojic, Claus Lundegaard
A q-query Locally Decodable Code (LDC) encodes an n-bit message x as an N-bit codeword C(x), such that one can probabilistically recover any bit x i of the message by querying only q bits of the codeword C(x), even after some constant fraction of codeword bits has been corrupted. We give new constructions of three query LDCs of vastly shorter length than that of previous constructions. Specifically, given any Mersenne prime p=2 t -1, we design three query LDCs of length N=EXP(n 1/t ), for every...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Sergey Yekhanin
Microsoft Research Video
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Like the Greeks who sailed with Jason in search of the Golden Fleece, the new Argonauts-foreign born, technically skilled entrepreneurs who travel back and forth between Silicon Valley and their home countries-seek their fortune in distant lands by launching companies far from established centers of skill and technology. Their story illuminates profound transformations in the global economy, and economic geographer Saxenian has followed this transformation, exploring one of its great paradoxes:...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, AnnaLee...
Why is software so hard? Our civilization runs on software, yet the art of creating it continues to be a dark mystery, even to the experts, and the greater the ambitions, the more it seem to fail. Scott Rosenberg tried to answer this question by taking us inside the Open Source Application Foundation, a software startup by Mitch Kapor (of Lotus Development) to follow what was supposed to be their 'one year race' to a brilliant new kind of software. Five years later the project is still in...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Scott...
An evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is an equilibrium strategy that is immune to invasions by rare alternative ('mutant') strategies. Unlike Nash equilibria, ESS do not always exist in finite games. In this paper, we address the question of what happens when the size of the game increases: does an ESS exist for 'almost every large' game? Letting the entries in the n x n game matrix be randomly chosen according to an underlying distribution F, we study the number of ESS with support of size...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Yuval Peres, Sergiu Hart
Random projections are a popular method for estimating distances. Instead of computing L2 distances over a big data matrix, we multiply the big matrix with a very sparse random matrix (over [-1 0 1]) to produce a smaller matrix. Distances in the smaller matrix are close to distances in the big matrix, but the smaller matrix is easier to work with. We then generalize very sparse random projections by introducing a novel data structure for estimating L1 and Lp distances as opposed to L2 distances...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Chris Burges, Ping Li
Microsoft Research Video
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Brendan will come and talk about this design process, show a lot of demos of his work, and be available for questions. ©2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Lili Cheng, Brendan Dawes
Microsoft Research Video
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Harvey Mudd College is a small, highly selective, school for undergraduates, with a focus on the sciences, engineering, and mathematics. The capstone experience for students majoring in computer science is the year-long Computer Science Clinic project, named in analogy to the practical experience that students receive in the medical profession. Currently six or more such projects are conducted each year. This talk will present the rationale for, and typical characteristics of, Computer Science...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jared Jackson, Robert Keller
TALK 1: The Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors (RAMP) is an affordable and versatile multiprocessor emulation platform being built as a large collaborative effort. RAMP hardware, from processors to coherent caches to networks, is implemented in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for flexibility, accuracy, visibility, cost and performance. It is designed to be composable, where different components can be quickly written, assembled and run. By using hardware rather than simulation,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Richard Draves, John Wawrzynek, Jan M. Rabaey